History Podcasts

Panay II PR-5 - History

Panay II PR-5 - History

Panay II
(PR-5: dp. 474,1. 191', b. 29", dr. 5'3", s. 15 k., cpl. 59, a.
2 3", 8 .30 cal. mg.)

The second Panay (PR-5) was built by Kiangnan Dockyard and Engineering Works, Shanghai, China, launched 10 November 1927; sponsored by Mrs. Ellis S. Stone, and commissioned 10 September 1928, Lt. Comdr. James Mackey Lewis ln command.

Built for duty in the Asiatic Fleet on the Yangtze Patrol, Panay had as her primary mission the protection of American lives and property frequently threatened in the disturbances the 1920's and 30's brought to China struggling to modernize, to create a strong central government, and, later, to meet Japanese aggression. Throughout Panay's service, navigation on the Yangtze was constantly menaced by bandits and eoldier outlaws of various stripes, and Panay and her sisters provided the protection necessary for American shipping and nationals, as other foreign forces did for their citizens. Often parties from Panay served as armed guards on American steamers plying the river. In 1931 her commanding officer, Lt. Comdr R. A. Dyer, reported: "Firing on gunboats and merchant ships have (sic.) become so routine that any vessel traversing the Yangtze River, sails with the expectation of being fired upon." and "Fortunately, the Chinese appear to be rather poor marksmen and the ship has, so far, not sustained any casualties in these engagements."

As the Japanese moved through South China, American gunboats evacuated most of the Embassy staff from Nanking during November 1937. Panay was assigned as station ship to guard the remaining Americans and take them off at the last possible moment. They came on board 11 December and

Panay moved upriver to avoid becoming involved in the fighting around the doomed capital. Three American merchant tankers sailed with her. The Japanese senior naval commander in Shanghai was informed both before and after the fact of this movement.

On 12 December, Japanese naval aircraft were ordered by their Army to attack "any and all ships" in the Yangtze above Nanking. Knowing of the presence of Panay and the merchantmen, the Navy requested verification of the order, which was received before the attack began about 1327 that dav and continued until Panay sank at 1554. Three men were killed, 43 sailors and 5 civilian passengers wounded.

A formal protest was immediately lodged by the American ambassador. The Japanese government accepted responsibility, but claimed the attack unintentional. A large indemnity was paid 22 April 1938 and the incident officially settled. However, further deterioration of relations between Japan and the United States continued, as did provocations, many of them stemming from the Japanese Army whose extremists wished war w.ith the United States.


Climax of Isolationism, Countdown to World War

This message announced an attack that could have triggered the start of World War II in 1937. What became known as the Panay Incident, in which Japanese forces repeatedly attacked an American gunboat in China, tested the national will of the United States at a time when isolationist sentiment at home was strong and tensions abroad high.

U.S. Presence in China Challenged

America’s military presence in China began in 1858 when rights to patrol the Yangtze River were arranged under the Sino-American Treaty. Its purpose was to protect U.S. personnel and interests, which steadily expanded into the 20th century. After the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy increased the number of gunboats available to patrol China’s rivers, and in 1901 the Yangtze Patrol became a subdivision of the Asiatic Fleet. According to a plaque in the wardroom of the USS Panay (PR-5), the patrol’s mission was “the protection of American life and property in the Yangtze River Valley . . . and the furtherance of American goodwill in China.” The gunboats were specifically prohibited from any offensive action.

Japan began to challenge American interests in China in 1900. That year Secretary of State John Hay had announced an Open Door policy with regard to China in order to establish American trade and a U.S. sphere of influence in the region. Japan responded by trying to extend its control throughout China.

Regional tension fluctuated for several years until 1931, when Japan invaded Manchuria to stifle rising Chinese nationalism and gain a source for raw materials. In essence, Japan annexed the area, renaming it Manchukuo. A Chinese plea for support from the League of Nations eventually resulted in the assembly condemning the invasion Japan responded by withdrawing from the league. America was interested in recovering from the Great Depression, not in a “minor,” distant dispute. However, in 1932 President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt did reaffirm U.S. rights under the Open Door policy. Tokyo summarily rejected the policy as well as subsequent protests by declaring countries that did not recognize Manchukuo thereby forfeited economic privileges in the region.

A Neutral Gunboat Amid a War

In July 1937 Japan fabricated the Marco Polo Bridge incident near Peking to justify a full-scale invasion and occupation of China. On 29 July, Tientsin was bombed, and 13 days later Japanese marines landed in Shanghai. After attempts at finding a peaceful solution to the fighting failed, the United States decided to maintain its military forces in China to protect Americans.

By December the Japanese had advanced 200 miles and besieged Nanking, China’s capital. Japanese control of the lower Yangtze through Nanking would cut China in half and give the invaders excellent lines of communication and control of commerce. But Chinese military opposition exceeded Tokyo’s expectations, and Japanese attacks became more vicious, with no regard for civilian casualties. Although most foreigners had fled by this time, the Panay steamed from Chungking to Nanking to evacuate many of the few Americans remaining there.

Lieutenant Commander James Hughes, U.S. Naval Academy class of 1919, had assumed command of the Panay on 23 October 1936. As a result of the Japanese invasion, he had taken precautions, including having large U.S. flags painted on top of the gunboat’s fore and aft superstructure. A large American flag also flew at her stern. At night all of the flags were lighted so that they could be seen from shore and from above. Hughes also periodically informed the American consul general of the Panay’s exact location, information that was passed along to the Japanese to avoid an accidental attack on the gunboat.

By 11 December the situation in China had further deteriorated, and with the first artillery barrage on Nanking, the Panay got under way accompanied by three U.S. Standard Oil tankers. On board the gunboat were 14 mostly American civilian refugees—businessmen, diplomats, and journalists—as well as U.S. Army Captain Frank Roberts, a military attaché. As the group of ships moved upriver, one of the Panay’s civilians, Universal Newsreel cameraman Norman Alley, recalled, “All of us stood and watched the burning and sacking of Nanking until we had rounded the bend and saw nothing but a bright red sky silhouetted with clouds and smoke.”

Attacked from the Air and the River

At about 0930 on 12 December, a Japanese infantry detachment on shore signaled the Panay to stop. Commander Hughes complied, and soon after a motor launch came alongside the gunboat. A lieutenant, accompanied by four riflemen with fixed bayonets, came aboard and asked where the boat was going and why, and for locations of Chinese troops. The former queries were answered, but Hughes politely refused to answer the last one. The officer then asked to search the Panay and the tankers for Chinese troops, but again was refused. The commander closed the meeting by asking the party to leave his boat.

The Panay then continued upriver. At approximately 1330, when the vessels were about 27 miles from Nanking, approaching planes were heard high overhead. Suddenly, before a general alarm could be sounded, two tremendous bomb explosions erupted on board the Panay. One of the bombs had hit the port bow, disabling the 3-inch gun and severely injuring Captain Hughes. Meanwhile, near-misses rocked the boat and showered shell fragments across her decks. Alley later wrote: “My first reaction was that the Japanese, mistaking the Panay for an enemy ship had then realized their error and were leaving but this was wrong . . . as almost directly thereafter a squadron of six small pursuit-type bombers came over at a much lower altitude and immediately began to power-dive and release what seemed to be 100-pound bombs.”

More than 30 years after the event, Alley maintained that the Japanese attack was not a case of mistaken identity: “Hell, I can believe those babies flying level up there at 7,000 or 8,000 feet might not be able to tell who we were. But when they started dive-bombing, they would have had to see our flags. They came straight out of the sun. And they came over and over again.”

During the 30-minute attack, sailors manned the Panay’s machine guns to ward off the repeated bombing and strafing runs but failed to hit any aircraft. Damage to the Panay was extensive. She could not make steam, and there was flooding belowdecks. Unable to talk because of shrapnel wounds, the gunboat’s executive officer, Lieutenant Arthur Anders, finally wrote the order to abandon ship. Despite being strafed by Japanese planes, the Panay’s two motor launches made repeated trips to shore evacuating the crew and passengers.

By 1505, the sinking Panay had been abandoned—the first U.S. Navy ship ever lost to enemy aircraft. Casualties were heavy. Italian journalist Sandro Sandri, Lieutenant Edgar G. Hulsebus, and Storekeeper First Class Charles L. Ensminger were mortally wounded 12 sailors, officers, and civilians were seriously injured and 35 others sustained minor injuries. The Japanese also attacked and disabled the three Standard Oil tankers nearby, killing one civilian and injuring another.

As the last Panay personnel arrived on shore, Japanese patrol boats motored close to the stricken vessel from the direction of the launch that had approached the gunboat that morning. Soldiers on board the boats fired several machine-gun bursts at the Panay, which was still flying the American flag, before boarding her. Shortly thereafter the boats left, missing the disembarked sailors and civilians, who had hidden in tall reeds along the riverbank.

Leadership Tested

The injured Hughes passed command to Army Captain Roberts, the senior-ranking uninjured officer. Roberts, who fortuitously spoke fluent Chinese, proceeded to organize an escape plan while waiting for dusk. Chinese from a nearby town arrived and offered assistance. The survivors required help 13 of the wounded needed stretchers, and two others had died. Captain Roberts mobilized the group, and it moved out to seek refuge in Chinese hamlets until telephone contact could be made with the U.S. ambassador to China, Nelson T. Johnson.

For almost 60 hours, the 70 men of the Panay successfully evaded the Japanese. At about 2000 on 14 December, a relief contingent of three British and American gunboats met the survivors on the Yangtze near Hohsien. Escorted by a Japanese destroyer, the relief column proceeded downriver until it rendezvoused with the USS Augusta (CA-31), flagship of Admiral Harry E. Yarnell and the Asiatic Fleet. Captain Roberts described the survivors’ arrival:

Past the devastation in Chaipei . . . we moved slowly around the point opposite Soochow Creek and came alongside the huge Augusta, her decks lined with sailors . . . there was no cheering: our flag was at half mast. Over a makeshift gangway, we clambered onto the flagship amidst flashes of news camera bulbs, passed along her board decks to Admiral Yarnell’s quarters to be greeted by the Admiral . . . and our own John Allison [U.S. consul in Nanking] who with tears in his eyes wrung our hands and thanked God we were safe. So did we all!

War or Peace?

An immediate concern was that the attack on the Panay would trigger a “Remember the Maine” reaction in the United States, resulting in war or retaliation. President Roosevelt responded with a formal protest to Tokyo on 13 December. Japan immediately made unofficial and private apologies and offered to meet all American demands. Stating that the attack had been a mistake, Japanese officials initiated an investigation. Minister of the Navy Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai reprimanded the squadron leaders of the attack, and Rear Admiral Teizo Mitsunami, head of Japanese naval air units in China, was relieved of command and ordered back to Tokyo. Their excuses and reasons for the attack were inconsistent.

The navy squadrons that attacked the Panay had been operating on intelligence provided by the army, whose response to the incident was indifferent. Army officials offered three baffling excuses:


Navy Cross – Other Conflicts 1937 to Present

Listed below are the recipients of the Navy Cross awarded for conflicts other than major wars as follows:

Panay Incident (December 1937) - 26
Squalus Rescue (May 1939) - 46
Various Other Actions (1939-1942) - 12
USS Liberty Incident (June 8, 1967) - 2
USS Pueblo Incident (January 1968) - 1
SS Mayaguez (May 1975) - 1
Grenada (October 25-29, 1983) - 1
Just Cause (Panama, December 1989 to January 1990) - 2
Operation Desert Storm (August 2, 1990 to February 28, 1991) - 2

* Indicates Killed in Action (KIA), Missing in Action (MIA), Prisoner of War (POW), or Died Non-Battle (DNB)

Panay Incident - December 1937

ADAMS, CHARLES S.
Radioman Second Class, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Panay
Date of Action: December 12, 1937
Synopsis:
The Navy Cross is presented to Charles S. Adams, Radioman Second Class, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on December 12, 1937, while serving aboard the Panay when it was attacked by the Japanese.

ANDERS, ARTHUR F.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Panay
Date of Action: December 12, 1937
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Arthur F. Anders, Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism on 12 December 1937 while serving as Executive Officer of U.S.S. Panay on the occasion of the bombing and loss of that vessel. Although severely wounded, suffering from loss of blood and unable to speak, Commander (then Lieutenant) Anders remained at his duty station, directing the fire of Panay's machine-gun battery and supervising abandon-ship operations. Displaying selfless concern for the safety of the ship and those on board, he gave his orders and commands in writing, and was a source of inspiration for all who observed him. His great personal valor throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

BARLOW, HARRY DOUGLAS
Lieutenant Commander, British Royal Navy
Date of Action: December 12, 1937
Synopsis:
The Navy Cross is presented to Harry Douglas Barlow, Lieutenant Commander, British Royal Navy, for his voluntary and unstinted cooperation in assisting with the recovery of the survivors of the Panay after it was attacked by the Japanese.
Home Town: England

BONKOSKI, JOHN A.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Third Class John Anthony Bonkoski (NSN: 2434213), United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Gunner's Mate Third Class Bonkoski displayed great coolness under fire while helping the Captain of the S.S. Mei Ping to get the underway and alongside a dock during the attack. Though wounded in this action, he assisted in extinguishing a fire caused by the first bombing, thereby temporarily saving the ship. The conduct of Gunner's Mate Third Class Bonkoski throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Conshohocken, Pennsylvania

CHEATHAM, WALTER
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Walter Cheatham, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Coxswain Cheatham was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Though wounded, he remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and the order was given to abandon ship. He then assisted in carrying other more seriously wounded from the ship and transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Coxswain Cheatham throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: San Bernardino, California

COWDEN, EDWARD
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Edward E. Cowden, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Under the most difficult and hazardous conditions, Coxswain Cowden voluntarily acted as coxswain of a motor sampan which made all trips with the wounded while abandoning ship, exposing himself to many attacks from hostile planes. He then assisted in transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Coxswain Cowden throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Birmingham, Alabama

CRABBE, LEWIS GONNE EYRE
Vice Admiral, British Royal Navy
Date of Action: December 12, 1937
Synopsis:
The Navy Cross is presented to Lewis Gonne Eyre Crabbe, Vice Admiral, British Royal Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession through his voluntary and unstinted cooperation in assisting with the recovery of the survivors of the U.S.S. Panay.
Public Law No. 581, 75th Congress, 1937
Home Town: England

DIRNHOFFER, JOHN A.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Seaman First Class John A. Dirnhoffer, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Seaman First Class Dirnhoffer displayed great coolness under fire while helping the Captain of the S.S. Mei Ping to get the underway and alongside a dock during the attack. Though wounded in this action, he assisted in extinguishing a fire caused by the first bombing, thereby temporarily saving the ship. He then assisted in transporting his more seriously wounded comrades overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Seaman First Class Dirnhoffer throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

GRAZIER, CLARK G.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Lieutenant (MC) Clark G. Grazier (NSN: 0-70598), United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and distinguished service in the line of his profession as Medical Officer of the U.S.S.PANAY (PR-5), during the bombing and loss when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Lieutenant Grazier displayed great calmness, ability and resourcefulness both while under fire aboard ships and also under very difficult conditions with limited medical equipment while caring for the wounded ashore. His untiring efforts and professional skill contributed immeasurably in reducing the seriousness of the injuries sustained and in so doing undoubtedly prevented additional fatalities. His performance of duty on this occasion was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Ingomar, Pennsylvania

HEBARD, ROBERT R.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Fireman First Class Robert Raymond Hebard, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Fireman First Class Hebard was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Though seriously wounded, he remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and he was carried from the ship. The conduct of Fireman First Class Hebard throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Sparta, Wisconsin

HENNESSY, JOHN N.
Gunner's Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Pany
Date of Action: December 12, 1937
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to John N. Hennessy, Gunner's Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism on the occasion of the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. Panay on 12 December 1937. Gunner's Mate Second Class Hennessy was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. He remained at his post of duty until the ammunition was expended and he was ordered to abandon ship. His performance of duty on this occasion was in keeping with the highest traditions of the Naval Service.

HODGE, JOHN L.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Fireman First Class John L. Hodge, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Fireman First Class Hodge displayed great coolness under fire while helping the Captain of the S.S. Mei Ping to get the underway and alongside a dock during the attack. Though wounded in this action, he assisted in extinguishing a fire caused by the first bombing, thereby temporarily saving the ship. Salvaging a first aid kit, he then rendered first aid to many wounded Americans and Chinese. The conduct of Fireman First Class Hodge throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Siluria, Alabama

*HULSEBUS, EDGAR W.G. (KIA)
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pride in presenting the Navy Cross (Posthumously) to Coxswain Edgar W. G. Hulsebus, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Coxswain Hulsebus was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. He remained at his post of duty until he was fatally wounded and carried from the ship. The conduct of Coxswain Hulsebus throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Home Town: Canton, Missouri

KERSKE, CARL H.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Carl H. Kerske, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Coxswain Kerske was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Though wounded, he remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and the order was given to abandon ship, giving up his own life jacket to a civilian. He then assisted in carrying the seriously wounded from the ship and transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Coxswain Kerske throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Chicago, Illinois

KOZAK, ALEXANDER
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Motor Machinist Second Class Alexander Kozak, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Motor Machinist's Mate Second Class Kozak was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Though seriously wounded, he remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and he was carried from ship. The conduct of Motor Machinist's Mate Second Class Kozak throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Ansonia, Connecticut

LANG, JOHN H.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Quartermaster John Henry Lang, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Chief Quartermaster Lang assisted his severely wounded commanding officer from the bridge and, although badly wounded himself, courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Chief Quartermaster Lang demonstrated great intelligence and initiative in a situation where all of the officers were wounded, and refused medical aid for himself until all others were cared for. His conduct throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Long Beach, California

MAHLMANN, ERNEST R.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Boatswain's Mate Ernest R. Mahlmann, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Continuously exposed to heavy bombing and machine gun fire from attacking planes, Chief Boatswain's Mate Mahlmann manned three machine guns at different times, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. It was due to his efforts that the boats were successfully lowered and manned during the abandon ship operations, and he made all trips with the wounded while abandoning ship. Though wounded, he voluntarily returned to the sinking PANAY for supplies after she had been abandoned. The conduct of Chief Boatswain's Mate Mahlmann throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Long Island, New York

MCEOWEN, STANLEY W.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Seaman First Class Stanley W. McEowen, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Seaman First Class McEowen was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Though wounded, he remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and the order was given to abandon ship. He then assisted in carrying other more seriously wounded from the ship and devoted himself to the care of the wounded for thirty hours without rest, assisting to transport them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Seaman First Class McEowen throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Groonville, Ohio

MURPHY, JAMES T.
Radioman Third Class, U.S. Navy

Date of Action: December 12, 1937
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to James T. Murphy, Radioman Third Class, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism on the occasion of the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. Panay. Radioman Third Class Murphy was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. He remained at his post of duty until the ammunition was expended and he was ordered to abandon ship. His performance of duty on this occasion was in keeping with the highest traditions of the Naval Service.

PETERSON, REGINALD
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Radioman Second Class Reginald Peterson, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Radioman Second Class Peterson was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Though wounded, he remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and the order was given to abandon ship. He then assisted in carrying other more seriously wounded from the ship and transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Radioman Second Class Peterson throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Berkeley, California

RIDER, MORRIS
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Morris Rider, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Coxswain Rider courageously manned machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. Later, exposing himself to additional attacks from hostile planes, he voluntarily acted as engineer of a motor sampan in which boat he made all trips with the wounded while abandoning ship. He then devoted himself to the care of the wounded for thirty hours without rest. The conduct of Coxswain Rider throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Southampton, Massachusetts

ROBERTS, FRANK N.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Captain (Infantry) Frank N. Roberts (ASN: 0-12734), United States Army, for distinguishing himself by display of coolness, resourcefulness and tact on the occasion of the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY, on 12 December 1937, while serving as Assistant Military Attaché to China. As the immediate representative of the Commanding Officer who had been seriously wounded, Captain Roberts took charge of the survivors of the PANAY ashore and by his superior leadership, his knowledge of land operations and his ability to speak Chinese, he was of invaluable assistance. His conduct on this occasion was of the highest order and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
Home Town: Oskaloosa, Kansas

TRUAX, HOMER W.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate First Class Homer W. Truax, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. While still under bombardment by hostile planes, Boatswain's Mate First Class Truax displayed initiative and coolness under fire by throwing overboard all gasoline, thereby preventing danger of explosion or serious fire. He then assisted in carrying the seriously wounded from the ship and transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Boatswain's Mate First Class Truax throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Vallejo, California

WEIMERS, GERALD L.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Machinist's Mate First Class Gerald L. Weimers, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. On his own initiative Machinist's Mate First Class Weimers manned a sampan, acting as both coxswain and engineer, making all trips in this boat while abandoning the ship, during which he was machined-gunned by attacking planes. He voluntarily returned to the PANAY in the face of hostile plane attacks, boarded the abandoned and sinking ship, and obtained supplies for the wounded. The conduct of Seaman First Class McEowen throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Bellingham, Washington

WILLIAMSON, MARCUS V.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Fireman First Class Marcus Veale Williamson, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Fireman First Class Williamson was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. He remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and the order was given to abandon ship. He then assisted in carrying the seriously wounded from the ship and transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Fireman First Class Williamson throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Houston, Texas

WISLER, ANDY R.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Radioman First Class Andy R. Wisler, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty during the bombing and loss of the U.S.S. PANAY (PR-5), when that vessel was attacked by Japanese airplanes during patrol in the Yangtze River, China, on 12 December 1937. Radioman First Class Wisler was a member of the crew which courageously operated the machine gun battery against the attacking planes, even though these guns could not bear forward from which direction most of the attacks were made. He remained at his post of duty until ammunition was expended and the order was given to abandon ship. He then assisted in carrying the seriously wounded from the ship and transporting them overland for six miles to a hospital. The conduct of Radioman First Class Wisler throughout this action reflects great credit upon himself, and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Nashua, Missouri

Squalus Rescue (May 1939)

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Charles Ackers, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Charles Acker's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Trenton, New Jersey

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Third Class Robert James Agness, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate Third Class Robert Agness' courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Houston, Texas

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Lieutenant Commander [then Shipfitter Second Class] Virgil Frederick Aldrich (NSN: 0-199485/2384538), United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Shipfitter Second Class Aldrich's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Seattle, Washington

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate First Class Joseph John Alicki, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate First Class Joseph Alicki's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Bridgeport, Connecticut

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate First Class James Edward Baker, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate First Class James Baker's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Havre de Grace, Maryland

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Machinist's Mate George Bugner, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Chief Machinist's Mate George Bugner's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterized conduct far and beyond the call of duty.

HOME OF RECORD: Newark, New Jersey

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Richard F. Clarke, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Richard Clarke's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Richard F. Clarke, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Richard Clarke's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Carpenter's Mate Second Class Frank R. Conwell, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Carpenter's Mate Second Class Frank Conwell's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Kansas City, Missouri

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Carpenter's Mate First Class Prentice Crittenden, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Carpenter's Mate First Class Frank Prentice Crittenden's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Louisville, Kentucky

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate Second Class George F. Crocker, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate Second Class George Crocker's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Hope Valley, Massachusetts

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate First Class Edmund B. Crosby, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate First Class Edmund Crosby's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Pensacola, Florida

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Torpedoman Jesse E. Duncan, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Torpedoman Jesse Duncan's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: San Francisco, California

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Captain Richard Stanislaus Edwards, United States Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Aide and later as Senior Aide on the Staff of the Commander of the U.S.S. SQUALUS Rescue and Salvage Unit. At the first indication of trouble Captain Edwards dispatched the U.S.S. FALCON of his command and proceeded himself from New London, Connecticut, in a destroyer to the scene of the disaster, arriving the following day, 24 May 1939. During the entire period of the Rescue and Salvage Operations he distinguished himself by the superior and outstanding manner in which he performed all of his duties. His advice and cooperation were of inestimable value and contributed greatly to the rescue operations and final successful salvage of the U.S.S. SQUALUS.

PLACE OF BIRTH: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
HOME OF RECORD: Washington, D. C.

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Gunner Ted D. Fickes, United States Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession during the salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Chief Gunner Fickes' task as officer in charge of all air hose connected to the U.S.S. SQUALUS and the many pontoons was a most arduous one and demanded constant attention day and night. His superior and outstanding performance of this duty was an important factor in the final salvage of the U.S.S. SQUALUS and characterizes conduct above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.

HOME OF RECORD: Salt Lake City, Utah

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Second Class Roland Fiedler, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate Second Class Roland Fiedler's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Wellston, Missouri

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Russell A. Fielding, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Russell Fielding's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Revere, Massachusetts

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate First Class Thomas W. Forester, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate First Class Thomas Forester's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: St. Louis, Missouri

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Shipfitter Second Class Harry L. Frickey, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Shipfitter Second Class Harry Frickey's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Chappell, Nebraska

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Shipfitter First Class Harry H. Frye, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Shipfitter First Class Harry Frye's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Carbondale, Illinois

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate First Class John G. Gilbert, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate First Class John Gilbert's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Los Angeles, California

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Gunner's Mate Walter E. Harman, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Chief Gunner's Mate Walter Harman's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: New London, Connecticut

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Shipfitter Second Class Osco Havens, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Shipfitter Second Class Osco Haven's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Steff, Kentucky

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Shipfitter Second Class Edward N. Jodrey, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Shipfitter Second Class Edward Jodrey's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: West Newton, Massachusetts

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain William Harold Johnson (NSN: 100497), United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain William Johnson's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

PLACE OF BIRTH: Ceredo, West Virginia
HOME OF RECORD: Ceredo, West Virginia

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Shipfitter First Class Robert M. Metzger, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Shipfitter First Class Robert Metzger's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Pharmacist's Mate First Class Benjamin Taylor Morris, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Pharmacist's Mate First Class Morris' courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: San Pedro, California

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Lieutenant Julian K. Morrison, United States Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Senior Assistant to the diving supervisor during the entire period of the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Lieutenant Morrison's technical diving knowledge and his ability in handling difficult situations in emergencies were outstanding. His calmness, courage and good judgment inspired confidence in his men as well as in the senior officers of the Unit. He made numerous deep dives himself and was the only diver to attempt to enter the SQUALUS while she was on the bottom, failing only due to circumstances beyond his control. His superior and outstanding performance of duty contributed much to the success of the operations and characterizes conduct above and beyond the call of duty.

HOME OF RECORD: Memphis, Tennessee

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Francis H. O'Keefe, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Francis O'Keefe's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Cohoes, New York

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Third Class Orval S. Payne, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate Third Class Orval Payne's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Weston, West Virginia

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Second Class Jim Bob Phifer, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate Second Class James Phifer's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Corley, Texas

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate First Class Alvie A. Phillips, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate First Class Alvie Phillips' courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Los Angeles, California

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Shipfitter Alfred W. Pickering, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Chief Shipfitter Alfred Pickering's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterized conduct far and beyond the call of duty.

HOME OF RECORD: San Diego, California

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Second Class John M. Porter, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate Second Class John Porter's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Hartford, Connecticut

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Torpedoman First Class Harry W. Ross, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Torpedoman First Class Harry Ross' courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Portland, Indiana

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Neil G. Shahan, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Neil Shahan's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Morgantown, West Virginia

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate Second Class Martin C. Sibitzky, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate Second Class Sibitzky was the first diver to go down to the stricken SQUALUS. He secured the rescue chamber downhaul to the forward torpedo room escape hatch and cleared the hatch while working at a depth of 220 feet in water at a low temperature. The extremely skillful work on this first dive resulted in marked expedition of the whole rescue operations and contributed greatly to its ultimate success.

HOME OF RECORD: Pedricktown, New Jersey

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate First Class Forest Eugene Smith, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate First Class Forest Smith's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Amarillo, Texas

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Coxswain Theodore P. Smith, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Coxswain Theodore Smith's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Chester, Pennsylvania

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Chief Torpedoman Walter H. Squire, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Chief Torpedoman Walter Squire's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterized conduct far and beyond the call of duty.

HOME OF RECORD: Los Angeles, California

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Boatswain's Mate Second Class Floyd M. Symons, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Boatswain's Mate Second Class Floyd Symons' courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: New Orleans, Louisiana

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Torpedoman First Class John W. Thompson, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Torpedoman First Class John Thompson's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Moose Lake, Minnesota

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate Second Class Wilson F. Tutt, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate Second Class Wilson Tutt's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: DeQueen, Arkansas

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Torpedoman Second Class Adrian J. Van Der Heyden, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Torpedoman Second Class Adrian Van Der Heyden's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Jersey City, New Jersey

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Pharmacist's Mate First Class Francis L. Westbrook, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Pharmacist's Mate First Class Westbrook's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: Wilson, North Carolina

CITATION:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Gunner's Mate First Class Louis Zampiglione, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a diver during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. SQUALUS on 23 May 1939. Gunner's Mate First Class Louis Zampiglione's courage and devotion to duty in making repeated dangerous dives during the most difficult diving conditions characterizes conduct far above and beyond the call of duty. (Advanced one grade in rating without examination.)

HOME OF RECORD: New York, New York

Various Other Actions (1939-1942)

*BASKIN, THOMAS A.
Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps
Date of Action: October 12, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Thomas A. Baskin, Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession while on guard duty in the restricted magazine area of the Naval Air Station, Sitka, Alaska, on October 12, 1941. Private First Class Baskin detected a fire in the dynamite stowage consisting of two wooden buildings in which were stowed great quantities of dynamite and caps. Fully aware of the great personal danger to which he was exposed, he remained at his post of duty and continued his efforts to extinguish the fire. In the explosion resulting from the fire, he lost his life. Private First Class Baskin's actions on this occasion characterizes conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty and in keeping with the best traditions of the Naval Services.
Authority - USMC Communiqué: 298792 AW-vpd-lar (15 January 1942)
Born: at Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Home Town: Murfreesboro, Tennessee

BRANDON, JOSEPH L.
Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps
Date of Action: October 20, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Joseph L. Brandon, Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession displayed on the occasion of the crashing and burning of the airplane SB2 U-3 on the night of October 20, 1941. Second Lieutenant William W. Dean, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve with Private First Class Brandon as gunner and passenger, took off on a routine night flight and crashed shortly after. Lieutenant Dean was knocked unconscious. The plane immediately burst into flames and burned. Private Brandon, although severely burned, extricated himself from the rear cockpit and without regard for his own safety went back into the flames and freed Lieutenant Dean from the wreckage before the gasoline tanks blew up. Private Brandon's action on this occasion was above and beyond the call of duty and reflects great credit upon the Naval Service.
Authority - USMC Communiqué: 288544 DLA-298-cb (15 January 1942)

COPE, HARLEY F.
Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Salinas
Date of Action: October 30, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Harley F. Cope, Commander, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in line of his profession as Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Salinas, in handling his ship and crew, when that vessel was torpedoed on October 30, 1941, and in bringing his ship safely to port, under most difficult circumstances, after it had sustained severe damage in an engagement with an enemy submarine.
Birth: 1/8/1898 - Dallas, TX
Home Town: New Orleans, LA

DANIS, ANTHONY LEO
Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Kearny
Date of Action: October 17, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Anthony Leo Danis, Commander, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in line of his profession as Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Kearny, in bringing his ship safely to port, under most difficult circumstances, after that vessel was torpedoed on October 17, 1941.
Birth: 2/1/1899 - Woonsocket, RI
Home Town: Washington, DC

ESSLINGER, ROBERT JOHN
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Engineer Officer, U.S.S. Kearny
Date of Action: October 17, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Robert John Esslinger, Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism as Engineer Officer of the U.S.S. Kearny during the torpedoing of that vessel by an enemy submarine on October 17, 1941. After a quick and accurate analysis of the situation, Lieutenant Commander Esslinger, working under extremely hazardous and difficult conditions, coolly and skillfully surmounted all obstacles and kept the engines operative, permitting the Kearny to proceed out of the dangerous submarine area and make port. His conduct throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the Navy of the United States.
Birth: 4/3/1908 - Trenton, OH
Home Town: Ypsilanti, MI

GAINARD, JOSEPH ALOYSIUS
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
SS City of Flint
Date of Action: October 9, 1939
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Joseph Aloysius Gainard, Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism in action as master of the steamer City of Flint, at the time of its seizure upon the high seas and during its detention by armed forces of a belligerant European power. Lieutenant Commander Gainard's skill, fine judgment and devotion to duty were of the highest order and in accordance with the best tradition of the Naval Service.
Birth: 10/11/1889 - Chelsea, MA
Home Town: Malrose, MA

JERMANN, THEODORE LEO
Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Navy R
Engineer Officer, U.S.S. Salinas
Date of Action: October 30, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Theodore Leo Jermann, Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism, as Engineer Officer of the U.S.S. Salinas, in inspecting the engineering spaces after the first torpedo struck the ship, and in securing overboard valves and ruptured lines when the second torpedo struck and the ship opened fire on the attacking submarine. His coolness and courage in taking that action, under the circumstances described, contributed materially in making it possible for the Salinas to reach port under her own power.
Birth: 2/8/1894 - Woodhaven, Long Island, NY
Home Town: Richmond Hill, NY

McDANIEL, AUCIE
Chief Machinist's Mate, U.S. Navy R
U.S.S. Kearny
Date of Action: October 17, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Aucie McDaniel, Chief Machinist's Mate, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism as Chief machinist's mate in charge of the forward engine room, U.S.S. Kearny, when that vessel was torpedoed on October 17, 1941.
Birth: 7/10/1899 - Kelly, LA
Home Town: Brooklyn, NY

McINTYRE, FRANCIS HERBERT
Chief Machinist's Mate, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Salinas
Date of Action: October 30, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Francis Herbert McIntyre, Chief Machinist's Mate, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism, in assisting the engineer officer of the U.S.S. Salinas in his inspection of the engineering spaces after the first torpedo struck, and in securing overboard valves and ruptured lines when the second torpedo struck and the ship opened fire on the attacking submarine.
Birth: 9/19/1903 - Bar Harbor, ME
Home Town: Cherryfield, ME

SMITH, ASHTON BERNARD
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Executive Officer, U.S.S. Salinas
Date of Action: October 30, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Ashton Bernard Smith, Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism, as executive officer of the U.S.S. Salinas, in operating the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system after the first torpedo struck the ship, and, after being injured by the explosion of the second torpedo, in giving the necessary orders to the crew of that vessel to keep her afloat and at the same time open fire on the attacking submarine.
Birth: 2/19/1890 - La Grange, GA
Home Town: Charleston, SC

SMITH, THOMAS CHAPMAN
Water Tender First Class, U.S. Navy
Date of Action: 1939
Citation Currently Not Available

WILSON, RUAL SOLEN
Motor Machinist First Class, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Salinas
Date of Action: October 30, 1941
Citation:
The Navy Cross is presented to Rual Solen Wilson, Motor Machinist First Class, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism in assisting the engineer officer of the U.S.S. Salinas in his inspection of the engineering spaces after the first torpedo struck, and in securing overboard valves and ruptured lines when the second torpedo struck and the ship opened fire on the attacking submarine.
Birth: 12/24/1913 - Shelburn, IN
Home Town: Granite City, IL

USS Liberty Incident (June 8, 1967)

USS Pueblo Incident (January 1968)

Grenada (October 25-29, 1983)

Just Cause (Panama, December 1989 to January 1990)

CASEY, THOMAS W.
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to Lieutenant, Junior Grade Thomas William Casey, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving as Commander of Sea-Air-Land Team FOUR (SEAL-4), GOLF Platoon during Operation JUST CAUSE, in action at Paitilla Airfield, Republic of Panama from 19 December 1989 to 21 December 1989. While leading his platoon into position to disable General Noriega's aircraft and deny it as a means of escape, Lieutenant, Junior Grade, Casey was engaged by heavy small arms fire. Without regard for his personal safety, he directed his platoon to return fire, firing his own weapon and killing one enemy soldier. Realizing his squad had sustained heavy casualties, Lieutenant, Junior Grade, Casey directed other SEAL elements to provide covering fire as he courageously moved to rescue the wounded. As the fire fight intensified and with nearby aircraft exploding in flames, he placed himself in front of the wounded and delivered devastating covering fire, neutralizing the enemy forces and enabling the wounded to be evacuated. Lieutenant (j.g. Casey's heroic leadership and courage under fire unquestionably saved many lives, were a catalyst to the fighting spirit and resolve of his men, and were critical to his unit's mission success. By his extraordinary bravery, bold initiative, and inspiring devotion to duty, Lieutenant, Junior Grade, Casey reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

*MCFAUL, DONALD L. (KIA)
Citation:
The President of the United States of America takes pride in presenting the Navy Cross (Posthumously) to Chief Engineman Donald L. McFaul (NSN: 541641184), United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism while serving as Platoon Chief Petty Officer of Sea-Air-Land Team FOUR (SEAL-4), GOLF Platoon during Operation JUST CAUSE at Paitilla Airfield, Republic of Panama on 20 December 1989. Chief Petty Officer McFaul's platoon was an element of Naval Special Warfare Task Unit PAPA, whose crucial mission was to deny to General Noriega and his associates the use of Paitilla Airfield as an avenue of escape from Panama. After insertion from sea by rubber raiding craft, Golf Platoon was patrolling toward their objective, a hangar housing General Noriega's aircraft, when they were engaged by heavy small arms fire. Realizing that most of the first squad, 25 meters north of his position, had been wounded, he left the relative safety of his own position in order to assist the wounded lying helplessly exposed. Under heavy enemy fire and with total disregard for his personal safety, Chief Petty Officer McFaul moved forward into the kill zone and began carrying a seriously wounded platoon member to safety. As he was nearing the safety of his own force's perimeter, he was mortally wounded by enemy fire. Chief Petty Officer McFaul's heroic actions and courage under fire saved his teammate's life and were an inspiration for other acts of heroism as the assault force prevailed in this decisive battle. By his extraordinary bravery, personal sacrifice, and inspiring devotion to duty, Chief Petty Officer McFaul reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Home Town: Bend, Oregon


Panay II PR-5 - History

"War in China July 7, 1937, to July 7, 1938" map of "Last Weeks Fighting" with Panay location Dec. 12, 1937, from Time July 1938 - bg During the "China Incident" airplanes from the Japanese Navy attacked and sank an American gunboat, the USS Panay. Captain James Hughes was following orders to assist the evacuation of American citizens and Standard Oil tankers up the Yangtze river from Nanking. The Japanese planes attacked at 1:27 pm Dec. 12, strafing and dropping bombs. Hughes ordered everyone to abandon ship. On shore, Hughes sent a radio message to the U.S. ambassador in Hankow 200 miles upriver. The survivors travelled Hohsien where they were picked up by the British gunboat HMS Bee and the Panay's sister ship USS Oahu, and taken to Shanghai where they boarded the USS Augusta Dec. 17 for the trip to the United States. The attack had been filmed by Norman Alley of Universal Newsreel and Eric Mayell of Fox Movietone News, and their film was widely seen in American theaters in January 1938.

USS Panay (PR-5) "was built by Kiangoan Dockyard and Engineering Works, Shanghai, China launched 10 November 1927 sponsored by Mrs. Ellis S. Stone and commissioned 10 September 1928, Lt. Comdr. James Mackey Lewis in command. Built for duty in the Asiatic Fleet on the Yangtze Patrol, Panay had as her primary mission the protection of American lives and property frequently threatened in the disturbances the 1920s and 30s brought to China struggling to modernize, to create a strong central government, and, later, to meet Japanese aggression. Throughout Panay's service, navigation on the Yangtze was constantly menaced by bandits and soldier outlaws of various stripes, and Panay and her sisters provided the protection necessary for American shipping and nationals, as other foreign forces did for their citizens. Often parties from Panay served as armed guards on American steamers plying the river. In 1931 her commanding officer, Lt. Comdr. R. A. Dyer, reported: "Firing on gunboats and merchant ships have (sic.) become so routine that any vessel traversing the Yangtze River, sails with the expectation of being fired upon." and "Fortunately, the Chinese appear to be rather poor marksmen and the ship has, so far, not sustained any casualties in these engagements."

As the Japanese moved through South China, American gunboats evacuated most of the Embassy staff from Nanking during November 1937. Panay was assigned as station ship to guard the remaining Americans and take them off at the last possible moment. They came on board 11 December and Panay moved upriver to avoid becoming involved in the fighting around the doomed capital. Three American merchant tankers sailed with her. The Japanese senior naval commander in Shanghai was informed both before and after the fact of this movement. On 12 December, Japanese naval aircraft were ordered by their Army to attack "any and all ships" in the Yangtze above Nanking. Knowing of the presence of Panay and the merchantmen, the Navy requested verification of the order, which was received before the attack began about 1327 that day and continued until Panay sank at 1554. Three men were killed, 43 sailors and 5 civilian passengers wounded. A formal protest was immediately lodged by the American ambassador. The Japanese government accepted responsibility, but claimed the attack unintentional. A large indemnity was paid 22 April 1938 and the incident officially settled. However, further deterioration of relations between Japan and the United States continued, as did provocations, many of them stemming from the Japanese Army whose extremists wished war with the United States." (text from Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships )

According to Charles Jellison, the reaction to the sinking of the Panay was mixed: "When news of the attack reached the U.S. capital, a furious President Franklin D. Roosevelt called for a strong response, 'a forceful gesture,' to put the Japanese on notice that the United States did not take such matters lightly Roosevelt and his cabinet discussed possible reprisals, including holding naval maneuvers in the China Sea or cutting off certain exports critical to Japan. It soon became apparent, though, that not many of the president's countrymen shared his outrage - or, if they did, they preferred not to make a big issue of it. Political leaders of both parties, including most of Roosevelt's cabinet, downplayed the incident and urged restraint, as did most of the press and the people at large. Nevertheless, President Roosevelt instructed Secretary of State Cordell Hull to deliver a letter of protest to the Japanese ambassador in Washington, advising the Japanese government that he was "deeply shocked and concerned." The president demanded an apology, full compensation for the attack, and assurances guaranteeing against a similar episode in the future. On December 24, the U.S. government received a formal apology from Tokyo. The Japanese government would, of course, punish those responsible for the 'grave blunder' caused by 'poor visibility' and pay full reparations. Washington officials prepared a bill of indemnification and sent it to Tokyo. Within four months the U.S. government received a check for $2,214,007.36. Meanwhile the Japanese press and public outdid themselves in expressions of friendship and 3 sympathy toward the American people. Tokyo schoolchildren contributed $10,000 worth of pennies to a fund for the victims of the Panay, and Americans in Japan were stopped on the streets and offered apologies. In what one Tokyo newspaper called 'an uttermost gesture,' a young Japanese woman appeared at the U.S. Embassy, cut off her hair, and presented it to the American ambassador.

"The newsreels reached American movie houses in mid-January Norman Alley was correct - between the two of them, he and Eric Mayell had missed very little. Viewers could see the Panay bobbing about at anchor in the middle of the river, minding its own business with its colors in full view, while from almost directly overhead the sun shone down through a cloudless sky. Suddenly Japanese planes swooped down on the ship. Time and again they came, savaging the Panay with bombs and machine-gun fire, while the movie cameras jumped about wildly with each explosion. The cameras had recorded scenes of the ship's devastation, the strafing of the lifeboats, the suffering of the wounded among the reeds, and the search planes circling overhead. There was no mistaking the meaning of it all - the Japanese had lied. There had been no visibility problem, no mistaken identity, and no 'grave blunder.' The Japanese had known what they were doing, all right, and they had done it with a vengeance. Even so, the American people were not exactly stirred to great wrath. They were clearly in no mood for the effects of another Maine or Lusitania. With the results of the Depression still being felt, people had enough to worry about at home without risking war with Japan over something that had happened half a world away. Instead the people chose to vent their anger, such as it was, against their own government. What was an American gunboat doing in China in the first place? Didn't the president and Congress know there was a war going on over there? What were they trying to do, make the Orient safe for democracy? All good questions, but they missed the point--a United States naval vessel had been deliberately and wantonly sunk by a foreign nation in time of peace. Shouldn't something be done about it? The answer was obviously "No." And anxious to avoid war, the United States government accepted the Japanese explanation and, in effect, let the matter drop. Yet it was a bitter pill for President Roosevelt to swallow. "I suppose it could be argued," he said to a friend, "that doing nothing is the next best thing to doing something." "Now," commented a small-town Idaho newspaper, "we can all sit back sans excitement--until Japan decides to sink another of our warships." (text from Jellison)


Iloilo City

The City of Iloilo (Filipino: Lungsod ng Iloilo, Hiligaynon: Syudad sang Iloilo or Dakbanwa sang Iloilo) is a major city and highly urbanized city in the Philippines and the capital city of Iloilo. It is the regional center of the Western Visayas as well as the center of the Iloilo-Guimaras Metropolitan Area. In the 2007 census, Iloilo City had a population of 418,710 with a 1.8% population annual growth rate. It is bordered by the towns of Oton in the west, Pavia in the north, Leganes in the northeast and the Iloilo Strait in its eastern and southern coastline. The city was a conglomeration of former towns, which are now the geographical districts, composing of: Jaro, Molo, La Paz, Mandurriao, Villa Arevalo, and Iloilo City Proper. The district of Lapuz, a former part of La Paz, was declared a separate district in 2008.

The history of Iloilo City dates back to the Spanish colonial period, starting out as a small and incoherent grouping of fishermen's hamlets from the Iloilo River by a large swamp which after 1855 became the second most important port of call in the colony due to transhipment of sugar products from the neighboring Negros Island. It was later given the honorific title of "La Muy Noble Ciudad" (English: The Most Noble City) by the Queen Regent of Spain . At the turn of the 20th century, Iloilo City was second to the primate city of Manila, with stores along Calle Real selling luxury products from all over the world, an agricultural experimental station established at La Paz in 1888, a school of Arts and Trades which opened in 1891, and a telephone network system operating in 1894.

In the coming of the Americans also in the turn of the 20th century, institutions like Central Philippine University (the first Baptist and 2nd private American university in Asia and in the country) Jaro Evangelical Church (the first Baptist church in the country) Iloilo Mission Hospital (the first Protestant hospital in the country) and the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches (the oldest Baptist organizational body in the Philippines) where established.

Our History

Even before the Spanish colonizers came, Iloilo had a flourishing economy. Lore has it that in the 13th century, ten Bornean datus came to the island of Panay and gave a gold hat (salakot) and a long golden necklace as a peace offering and to the Ati natives of the island. It was said that it was also a way of the ten Bornean datus to barter the flat lands of Panay from the Ati. One datu, named Paiburong, was given the territory of Irong-Irong.

Early Spanish colonial period

In 1566, as the Spanish conquest of the Philippines was underway and moving north toward Manila, the Spaniards under Miguel López de Legazpi came to Panay and established a settlement in Ogtong (now Oton). He appointed Gonzalo Ronquillo as deputy encomiendero, a position which would later become governor in later years.

In 1581 Ronquillo moved the town center approximately 12 km east due to recurrent raids by Moro pirates and Dutch and English privateers, and renamed the area La Villa de Arevalo in honor of his hometown in Ávila, Spain.

In 1700, due to ever-increasing raids especially from the Dutch and the Moros, the Spaniards again moved their seat of power some 25 km eastward to the village of Irong-Irong, which had a natural and strategic defense against raids and where, at the mouth of the river that snakes through Panay, they built Fort San Pedro to better guard against the raids which were now the only threat to the Spaniards' hold on the islands. Irong-Irong or Ilong-Ilong was shortened to Iloilo and with its natural port quickly became the capital of the province.

The Sugar Boom era and the late Spanish colonial period

In the late 18th century, the development of large-scale weaving industry started the movement of Iloilo's surge in trade and economy in the Visayas. Sometimes referred to as the "Textile Capital of the Philippines", the products were exported to Manila and other foreign places. Sinamay, piña and jusi are examples of the products produced by the looms of Iloilo. Because of the rise of textile industry, there was also a rise of the upper middle class. However, the introduction of cheap textile from UK and the emergence of the sugar economy, the industry waned in the mid-19th century. Museo Iloilo is the repository of Iloilo's past.

The waning textile industry was replaced however by the opening of Iloilo's port to world market in 1855. Because of this, Iloilo's industry and agriculture was put on direct access to foreign markets. But what triggered the economic boom of Iloilo in the 19th century was the development of sugar industry in Iloilo and its neighboring island of Negros. Sugar during the 19th century was of high demand. Nicholas Loney, the British vice-consul in Iloilo developed the industry by giving loans, constructing warehouses in the port and introduced new technologies in sugar farming. The rich families of Iloilo developed large areas of Negros, which later called haciendas because of the sugar's high demand in the world market. Because of the increase in commercial activity, infrastructures, recreational facilities, educational institutions, banks, foreign consulates, commercial firms and much more sprouted in Iloilo.

On 5 October 1889, due to the economic development that was happening in Iloilo, the Queen Regent of Spain raised the status of the town into the Royal City (Queen's City) of the South, and in 1890, the city government was established.

In 1896, the initial reaction of Ilonggos in the outbreak of the Revolution in Manila was hesitant. However, the Capital City of Iloilo was the first to offer assistance to the Spanish Crown in quelling the insurrection, owing allegiance to no other Country than Spain before the Philippine Independence. Because of this, the Queen Regent Maria Cristina honored the City (in the name of her son King Alfonso III) with the title "La Muy Noble", in appreciation of the most noble virtue of Ilonggo chivalry. Due to the Spanish blow by blow defeat by, at first, the Katipunan, and later by the Americans, the Spaniards left Manila and established the last Spanish Capital in the Orient in Iloilo City. Sooner, however, through the leadership of General Martin Delgado, the towns of Iloilo got involved in the struggle for independence, except for Iloilo City, Molo, and Jaro.

On December 25, 1898, the Spanish government surrendered to the Ilonggo revoltionaries in Plaza Alfonso XIII (Plaza Libertad today), and in that place the Filipinos and Spaniards parted ways as friends. In the name of the last Spanish Governor General, Don Diego de los Ríos, Brig. General and Military Provincial Governor Ricardo Monet, together with Lt. Col. Agustín Solís, formally handed over Plaza Alfonso XIII to the Republic of the Philippines through the person of the Filipino General Martin Delgado, who represented President Emilio Aguinaldo in Iloilo. Martin Delgado was named Governor of the Province afterwards.

The newly found freedom of Ilonggos was short-lived, the American forces arrived in Iloilo in late December 1898. By February 1899, the North Americans started to mobilize for colonizing anew the City and Province. Resistance was the reaction of Ilonggos upon the invasion which lasted up to 1901.

American colonial era and Japanese occupation

In 1900, the Americans reverted the city's status into a township again. Yet because of its continuous commercial activities and because it was an important port of call in the Visayas-Mindanao area, it regained the cityhood status on July 16, 1937, through Commonwealth Act 158. Incorporated as part of Iloilo City were the towns of Molo, Jaro, Mandurriao, La Paz and Villa de Arevalo.

In the very early start of American colonial era, Protestant American Missionaries came to Iloilo as a backlash against Catholicism in the Philippines. The first Protestants to came was the Presbyterians and they established the first Protestant and American hospital in country, Iloilo Mission Hospital and supposedly it came also that Silliman University (the first Protestant and private American university in Asia and the country) was originally a location for its foundation, but due to Catholic opposition, the founder, David S, Hibbard moved to Dumaguete City, where the university is now presently found. Along with the Presbyterians, Baptists came and established Central Philippine University (the first Baptist university in the country), Jaro Evangelical Church (the first Baptist church in the Philippines), and the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches (the oldest Baptist organizational body in the Philippines)

Sometime after its re-establishment, the City adopted a seal with the title given to it by the Queen Regent María Cristina, together with another title: "Muy Leal". Thus, the City's title became "La Muy Leal y Noble Ciudad de Iloílo", which remains inscribed on its seal until the present. However, prosperity did not continue as the sugar's demand was declining, labor unrests were happening in the port area that scared the investors away and the opening of the sub-port of Pulupandan in Negros Occidental, has moved the sugar importation closer to the sugar farms. By 1942, the Japanese invaded Panay and the economy moved into a standstill.

During World War II, Iloilo was controlled by several Japanese Battalions, Japan's ultimate goal was to entrench itself deeply into the Philippines so that at the close of the war they could occupy it just as the Spanish and the Americans had years before. However, when Filipino & American forces liberated Iloilo from Japanese military occupation on March 25, 1945 the remnants of these battalions were held in Jaro Plaza as a makeshift detention facility.

Post-war period

By the end of the war, Iloilo's economy, life and infrastructure were damaged. However, the continuing conflict between the labor unions in the port area, declining sugar economy and the deteriorating peace and order situation in the countryside and the exodus of Ilonggos to other cities and islands that offered better opportunities and businessmen moved to other cities such as Bacolod and Cebu led to Iloilo's demise in economic importance in southern Philippines.

By the 1960s towards 1990s, Iloilo's economy progressed in a moderate pace. The construction of the fish port, international seaport and other commercial firms that invested in Iloilo marked the movement of the city making it as the regional center of Western Visayas.


The Forgotten Story of How America and Japan Almost Went to War (before Pearl Harbor)

When U.S. Navy gunboat Panay was sunk by Japanese aircraft on a Chinese river, the two countries were pushed to the brink of war.

The mixed crowd aboard the gunboat that morning included several newsreel cameramen who had just completed a short documentary film about the Panay.

The day was sunny, clear, and still. The gunboat crewmen ate their noon meal, secured, and got ready for a peaceful Sunday afternoon. Eight bluejackets were permitted to take a sampan over to the Mei Ping for some cold beers, and others took naps. The Panay’s guns were covered and unmanned.

Meanwhile, an attack force of 24 Japanese naval bombers, fighters, and dive bombers had been formed up after the Army mistakenly reported that 10 ships laden with refugees were fleeing up the Yangtze from Nanking. It was a golden opportunity for eager young Navy pilots to attack ships instead of ground targets. The enemy fliers took off with such haste that no strike plan was set up. They roared toward the river.

Suddenly, at 1:37 pm the Panay lookout reported two aircraft in sight at about 4,000 feet. Commander Hughes peered from the pilothouse door to see planes rapidly losing altitude and heading his way. Three Aichi D1A2 “Susie” dive bombers flew over the gunboat and released 18 bombs. Seconds later, an explosion threw Hughes across the pilothouse, breaking his thigh.

The bombs felled the gunboat’s foremast, knocked out the forward 3-inch gun, and wrecked the pilothouse, sick bay, and fire and radio rooms. When he regained consciousness, Hughes found the bridge a shambles. The quiet Sunday had erupted into a day of fury, and a Universal Pictures newsreel cameraman recorded it. His film showed the planes strafing at masthead level, so low that the pilots’ faces were seen clearly.

Soon after the first strike, 12 more dive bombers and nine fighters made several runs over the Panay, strafing for 20 minutes. She was riddled with shrapnel from near misses.

The response from the gunboat was immediate but ineffective. Crewmen tore the covers off their weapons, and the .30-caliber machine guns clattered away at the Japanese planes. The salvos were directed by Chief Boatswain’s Mate Ernest Mahlmann, who fought without his trousers. He had been sleeping below decks when the attack started and had no time to get dressed.

Ensign Dennis Biwerse had his clothes stripped off by the bomb blasts, and Lieutenant Tex Anders, the executive officer, was hit in the throat and unable to speak. He wrote instructions in pencil on a bulkhead and navigation chart. Lieutenant C.G. Grazier, the medical officer, heroically tended to the wounded during the ordeal. Suffering great pain and with his face blackened by soot, Commander Hughes lay propped up in the galley doorway. There was no need for him to give orders to his welltrained crew.

The Panay was soon helpless in the water. An oil line had been cut, so no steam could be raised to beach her or use pumps to cope with the rapidly rising water. By 2:05 pm, all power and propulsion were lost.

While the crew strove to save its gunboat, the Japanese raiders paid special attention to the three nearby oil barges. Half a dozen planes dropped bombs, but all missed their targets. Then six dive bombers and nine fighters bore down, bombing and strafing, but the oil barges were able to get underway. The eight gunboat bluejackets who had been drinking beer aboard the Mei Ping helped the panicky Chinese seamen fight fires and move the vessel out of range of the Japanese onslaught.

The Mei Hsia made a valiant effort to ease alongside the stricken Panay and take off survivors, but Hughes and his crew frantically waved her away. They did not want the highly flammable barge alongside while bombs were still falling. The Mei Hsia and Mei Ping then tied up to a pontoon on the southern side of the river, and the Mei An beached on the northern bank.

Less than half an hour after the first bomb hit, it was obvious that the Panay, listing and settling, was doomed. The forward starboard main deck was awash, and there were six feet of water in some compartments. Commander Hughes gave the order to abandon ship, and crewmen started making for shore in the gunboat’s two sampans. While two of the oil barges were being bombed and destroyed, other low-flying enemy planes fired at the sampans, stitching holes in their bottoms and wounding some of the occupants. At 3:05 pm, Ensign Biwerse was the last man to leave the gunboat.

Chief Mahlmann, still without his trousers, and a sailor gallantly returned to the gunboat to retrieve stores and medical supplies. While they were paddling back to the riverbank, two boatloads of Japanese soldiers machine-gunned the Panay, boarded her, and then quickly left. At 3:45 pm, the gunboat rolled over to starboard and slowly slid beneath the water bow first.

The American survivors spent the rest of that day hiding in eight-foot reeds and ankle-deep mud on the riverbank, while the enemy planes continued strafing. “Doc” Grazier did his best to make 16 wounded men comfortable. Because of Commander Hughes’s wounds, Army Captain Frank Roberts, an assistant military attaché who had been aboard the Panay, was put in command of the survivors. His knowledge of the Chinese language and the situation ashore proved indispensable.

With few rations and inadequate clothing for the near freezing nights, the survivors spent two grueling days wandering through swamps and along footpaths and canals to seek refuge away from the river. They were treated kindly by the Chinese and managed to get word of their plight to Admiral Yarnell. They reached the village of Hoshien and were taken aboard the gunboats Oahu and HMS Ladybird.

The Panay was the first American vessel lost to enemy action on the 3,434-mile Yangtze River. Two crewmen and a civilian passenger were killed, and there were 43 casualties, including 11 officers and men seriously wounded.

The loss of the Panay and British vessels, including HMS Ladybird and HMS Bee, and the bombing of the gunboat USS Tutuila at Chungking made headlines in the British and American press. Outrage was widespread. Even the Japanese people and government were aghast, yet the international community failed to take effective action. Remembering the sinking of the 6,650-ton battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, Ambassador Grew at first expected his country to declare war. Prompt Japanese regrets and promises of reparation eventually turned away wrath.

In the Japanese capital, the government of 46-year-old Prince Fumimaro Konoye, the prime minister, was as shaken by the sinkings as were the Americans and the British. An embarrassed Foreign Minister Kiki Hirota took a note to Ambassador Grew expressing regret and offering full restitution for the loss of the Panay. “I am having a very difficult time,” said Hirota. “Things happen unexpectedly.”

The Japanese Navy high command showed its disapproval by dismissing the commander of the 38,200-ton carrier Kaga, who was responsible for the Panay attack. “We have done this to suggest that the Army do likewise and remove Hashimoto from his command,” said Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the naval vice minister, who did not relish doing battle with the U.S. Navy. After spending much time in America, he was aware of the country’s potential military strength. Following an investigation led by Yamamoto, the Japanese government was quick to apologize. Ambassador Grew was intensely relieved, but he wrote prophetically in his diary, “I cannot look into the future with any feeling of serenity.”

President Roosevelt called an immediate meeting of his cabinet, and Navy Secretary Claude Swanson, Vice President John Nance Garner, and Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes urged a declaration of war. “Certainly, war with Japan is inevitable sooner or later,” noted Ickes. “If we have to fight her, isn’t this the best possible time?” FDR replied that the Navy was not ready for war and that the country was unprepared. Senator Harry Ashurst of Arizona told the president that a declaration of war would gain no votes on Capitol Hill. Senator Henrik Shipstead of Minnesota spoke for many when he suggested that American forces in China be withdrawn. “How long are we going to sit there and let these fellows kill American soldiers and sailors and sink our battleships?” he asked.

The president directed Secretary of State Cordell Hull to demand an apology from the Japanese government, secure full compensation, and obtain a guarantee against a repetition of the Yangtze River attacks. FDR also instructed Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau Jr. to prepare to seize Japanese assets in the United States if Tokyo did not pay and considered the possibility of an Anglo-American economic blockade.

Intent on clamping a quarantine on Japan, Roosevelt summoned the British ambassador in Washington, Sir Ronald Lindsay, and suggested that the two nations impose a naval blockade that would deprive Japan of vital raw materials. Lindsay protested that such a move would lead to war but cabled London that his “horrified criticisms” had “made little impression upon the president.” The British Admiralty, however, approved FDR’s blockade plan. The president was resolute and briefed the cabinet about his quarantine plan on December 17.


Contents

Panay was the seat of the ancient Confederation of Madja-as—the first pre-Hispanic Philippine state within the Visayas islands region, and the second Srivijayan colony in the Philippine Archipelago, next to the Sulu Archipelago. [3] The island is purportedly named after the state of Pannai which was a militant-country fronting the strait of Malacca and responsible for policing the shipping of the area as well as expelling invasions from Arabs, Indians and Chinese until the state was felled by a surprise attack from the back-flank emanating from the Tamil occupied capital of Sri Vijaya. Madja-as was established by nine rebel datus or high officials connected with the court of Brunei, who were forced to leave that are on account of enmity of the Rajah at that time ruling the land. [4] The datus, together with their wives and children, as well as few faithful servants and followers were secretly escorted out of the country by the Rajah's Chief Minister, whose name was Datu Puti. [3] The local folklore says that the name of the Bornean Rajah was Makatunao.

Their ultimate origins may be traced to the sacking of the kingdom of Pannai at North Sumatra by the Chola dynasty who had placed puppet Rajahs on the throne after their invasion. (Hence the motive for the Sri Vijayan Datus to rebel against this, and go elsewhere). The island of Panay having been named after the dissolved kingdom of Pannai. [4]

They embarked on sailing rafts of the type used by the Visayans (the term used in the Malay settlements, of what is now Borneo and Philippines, to refer to Srivijayans) in Sumatra and Borneo. [3] According to tradition, which survive in the local culture of Western Visayas, this seafaring vessel is called Balangay, from which Barangay—the smallest social unit in the present-day Philippines—came from.

The semi-democratic confederation reached its peak during the 15th century under the leadership of Datu Padojinog when it warred against the Chinese Empire, the Rajahnate of Butuan, and the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao. It was also feared by the people of the Kingdom of Maynila and Tondo. [5] It was integrated to the Spanish Empire through pacts and treaties (c.1569) by Miguel López de Legazpi and his grandson Juan de Salcedo. During the time of their hispanization, the principalities of the Confederation were already developed settlements with distinct social structure, culture, customs, and religion. [6] Among the archaeological proofs of the existence of this Hiligaynon nation are the artifacts found in pre-Hispanic tombs from many parts of the island, which are now in display at Iloilo Museum. Another testimony of the antiquity of this civilization is the longest and oldest epic in the region, the Hinilawod.

According to Beyer and other historians, the migration of the settlers from the collapsing Srivijayan Empire to Panay happened in this way:

Sailing northward from Borneo along the coast of Palawan, the ten Datus crossed the intervening sea, and reached the island of Panay. They landed at the point, which is near the present town of San Joaquin. They had been able to reach the place directly because their small fleet was piloted by a sailor who had previously visited these regions on a ship engaged in commerce and trade. [3]

Soon after the expedition had landed, the Borneans came in contact with the native people of the island, who were called Atis. Some writers have interpreted these Atis as Negritos, other sources present evidence that they were not at all a dwarfed primitive people of Negrito type, but were rather tall, dark-skinned Indonesian type. These native Atis lived in villages of fairly well-constructed houses. They possessed drums and other musical instruments, as well as a variety of weapons and personal adornments, which were much superior to those known among the Negritos. [7]

Negotiations were conducted between the newcomers and the native Atis for the possession of a wide area of land along the coast, centering on the place called Andona, at a considerable distance from the original landing place. Some of the gifts of the Visayans in exchange of those lands are spoken of as being, first, a string of gold beads so long that it touched the ground when worn and, second, a salakot, or native hat covered with gold. [8] The term (which survive in the present Hiligaynon language) for that necklace is Manangyad, from the Hiligaynon term sangyad, which means "touching the ground when worn". There were also a variety of many beads, combs, as well as pieces of cloth for the women and fancifully decorated weapons for men. The sale was celebrated by a feast of friendship between the newcomers and the natives, following which the latter formally turned over possession of the settlement. [8] Afterwards, a great religious ceremony was held, with a sacrifice to the settlers' ancient gods performed by a priest whom they had brought with them from Borneo. [8]

Following the religious ceremony, the priest indicated that it was the will of the gods that they should settle not at Andona, but rather at a place some distance to the east called Malandog (now a Barangay in Hamtik, Province of Antique, where there was both much fertile agricultural land and an abundant supply of fish in the sea. After nine days, the entire group of newcomers was transferred to Malandog. At this point, Datu Puti announced that he must now return to Borneo. He appointed Datu Sumakwel, the oldest, wisest and most educated of the datus, as chief of the Panayan settlement. [8]

Not all the Datus, however, remained in Panay. Two of them, with their families and followers, set out with Datu Puti and voyaged northward. After a number of adventures, they arrived at the bay of Taal, which was also called Lake Bombon on Luzon. Datu Puti returned to Borneo by way of Mindoro and Palawan, while the rest settled in Lake Taal. [9]

The original Panayan settlements continued to grow and later split up into three groups: one of which remained in the original district (Irong-irong), while another settled at the mouth of Aklan River in northern Panay. The third group moved to the district called Hantik. These settlements continued to exist down to the time of the Spanish regime and formed centers, around which the later population of the three provinces of Iloilo, Capiz, and Antique grew up. [10]

An old manuscript Margitas of uncertain date (discovered by the anthropologist H. Otley Beyer) [11] give interesting details about the laws, government, social customs, and religious beliefs of the early Visayans, who settled Panay within the first half of the thirteenth century. [10] The term Visayan was first applied only to them and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, even at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol, and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to them because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay. [12]

Grabiel Ribera, captain of the Spanish royal infantry in the Philippine Islands, also distinguished Panay from the rest of the Pintados Islands. In his report (dated 20 March 1579) regarding a campaign to pacify the natives living along the rivers of Mindanao (a mission he received from Dr. Francisco de Sande, Governor and Captain-General of the Archipelago), Ribera mentioned that his aim was to make the inhabitants of that island "vassals of King Don Felipe… as are all the natives of the island of Panay, the Pintados Islands, and those of the island of Luzon…" [13]

During the early part of the colonial period in the Archipelago, the Spaniards led by Miguel López de Legazpi transferred their camp from Cebu to Panay in 1569. On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the royal treasurer in the Archipelago, wrote to Philip II reporting about the Portuguese attack to Cebu in the preceding autumn. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola (dated three days later, 8 June), also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese. The danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain (dated 1 July 1569), mentioned the same reason for the relocation of Spaniards to Panay. [14] It was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and later launched on 8 May 1570. [15]

There are legends on how the island itself came to be called Panay. [ citation needed ] It was, however, once referred as Aninipay by the indigenous Aetas, after a plant that abounded in the island. Later, the Malay settlers (most probably from the fallen Srivijayan State of Pannai), who first arrived in the island in the 12th century, called it Madja-as. [16]

Another legend has it that Legazpi and his men, in search of food as they moved away from Cebu, exclaimed upon seeing the island, "Pan hay en esta isla"!. So they established their first settlement in the island at the mouth of the Banica River in Capiz, and called it Pan-ay. This was the second Spanish settlement in the Philippines, after San Miguel, Cebu. [14]

The account of early Spanish explorers about Panay and its People

During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, the Spanish Augustinian Friar Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A. described Panay as: "…very similar to that of Sicily in its triangular form, as well as in it fertility and abundance of provision. It is the most populated island after Manila and Mindanao, and one of the largest (with over a hundred leagues of coastline). In terms of fertility and abundance, it is the first. […] It is very beautiful, very pleasant, and full of coconut palms… Near the river Alaguer (Halaur), which empties into the sea two leagues from the town of Dumangas…, in the ancient times, there was a trading center and a court of the most illustrious nobility in the whole island." [17] Padre Francisco Colin (1592-1660), an early Jesuit missionary and Provincial of his Order in the Philippines also records in the chronicles of the Society of Jesus (published later in 1663 as Labor euangelica) that Panay is the island which is most abundant and fertile. [18]

Miguel de Loarca, who was among the first Spanish settlers in the Island, made one of the earliest account about Panay and its people according to a Westerner's point of view. In June 1582, while he was in Arevalo (Iloilo), he wrote in his Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas the following observations:

The island is the most fertile and well-provisioned of all the islands discovered, except the island of Luzon: for it is exceedingly fertile, and abounds in rice, swine, fowls, wax, and honey it produces also a great quantity of cotton and abacá fiber. [19]

"The villages are very close together, and the people are peaceful and open to conversion. The land is healthful and well-provisioned, so that the Spaniards who are stricken in other islands go thither to recover their health." [19]

"The natives are healthy and clean, and although the island of Cebu is also healthful and had a good climate, most of its inhabitants are always afflicted with the itch and buboes. In the island of Panay, the natives declare that no one of them had ever been afflicted with buboes until the people from Bohol – who, as we said above, abandoned Bohol on account of the people of Maluco – came to settle in Panay, and gave the disease to some of the natives. For these reasons the governor, Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, founded the town of Arevalo, on the south side of this island for the island runs north and south, and on that side live the majority of the people, and the villages are near this town, and the land here is more fertile." [19] This probably explains why there are reference of presence of Pintados in the Island.

"The island of Panay provides the city of Manila and other places with a large quantity of rice and meat…" [20] . "As the island contains great abundance of timber and provisions, it has almost continuously had a shipyard on it, as is the case of the town of Arevalo, for galleys and fragatas. Here the ship 'Visaya' was launched." [21]

Another Spanish chronicler in the early Spanish period, Dr. Antonio de Morga (Year 1609) is also responsible for recording other Visayan customs. Customs such as Visayans' affinity for singing among their warrior-castes as well as the playing of gongs and bells in naval battles.

Their customary method of trading was by bartering one thing for another, such as food, cloth, cattle, fowls, lands, houses, fields, slaves, fishing-grounds, and palm-trees (both nipa and wild). Sometimes a price intervened, which was paid in gold, as agreed upon, or in metal bells brought from China. These bells they regard as precious jewels they resemble large pans and are very sonorous. They play upon these at their feasts, and carry them to the war in their boats instead of drums and other instruments. [22]

The early Dutch fleet commander Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge called at Panay in 1607. He mentions a town named "Oton" on the island where there were "18 Spanish soldiers with a number of other Spanish inhabitants so that there may be 40 whites in all". He explained that "a lot of rice and meat is produced there, with which they [i.e. the Spanish] supply Manila." [23]

The island lent its name to several United States Navy vessels including the USS Panay (PR-5), sunk in 1937 by the Japanese in the Panay incident.


Panay

Panay is the sixth-largest and fourth most-populous island in the Philippines, with a total land area of 12,011 km 2 (4,637 sq mi) and with a total population of 4,302,634 as of 2015. [3] Panay comprises 4.4 percent of the entire population of the country. [4] The City of Iloilo is its largest settlement with a total population of 447,992 inhabitants.

Panay is a triangular island, located in the western part of the Visayas. It is about 160 km (99 mi) across. It is divided into four provinces: Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo, all in the Western Visayas Region. Just closely off the mid-southeastern coast lies the island-province of Guimaras. It is located southeast of the island of Mindoro and northwest of Negros across the Guimaras Strait. To the north and northeast is the Sibuyan Sea, Jintotolo Channel and the island-provinces of Romblon and Masbate to the west and southwest is the Sulu Sea and the Palawan archipelago [5] and to the south is Panay Gulf. Panay is the only main island in the Visayas whose provinces don't bear the name of their island.

Panay is bisected by the Central Panay Mountain Range, its longest mountain chain. The island has many rivers, the longest being the Panay River at a length of 168 kilometres (104 mi), followed by the Jalaur, Aklan, Sibalom, Iloilo and Bugang rivers. Standing at about 2,117 m (6,946 ft), the dormant Mount Madja-as (situated in Culasi, Antique) is the highest point of the island, [2] with Mount Nangtud (located between Barbaza, Antique and Jamindan, Capiz) following next at 2,073 m (6,801 ft).

The island lent its name to several United States Navy vessels including the USS Panay (PR-5), sunk in 1937 by the Japanese in the Panay incident.

History

Etymology

Before 1212, Panay was called Simsiman. The community is located at the shores of the Ulian River and was linked by a creek. The creek provided salt to the Ati people as well as animals which lick the salt out of the salty water. Coming from the root word "simsim", "simsimin" means "to lick something to eat or to drink", thus the place was called Simsiman.

The native Ati called the island Aninipay from words "ani" to harvest and "nipay", a hairy grass abundant in the whole Panay.

Before the arrival of the Europeans

No pre-Hispanic written accounts of Iloilo and Panay island exist today. Oral traditions, in the form of recited epics like the Hinilawod, has survived to a small degree. A few recordings of these epic poems exist. The most notable are the works of noted Filipino Anthropologist Felipe Jocano. [6]

While no current archaeological evidence exist describing pre-Hispanic Panay, an original work by Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro published in 1907 called Maragtas details the alleged accounts of the founding of the various pre-Hispanic polities on Panay Island. The book is based on oral and written accounts available to the author at the time. [7] The author made no claim on the historical accuracy of the accounts. [8]

According to Maragtas, the Kedatuan of Madja-as was founded after ten datus fled Borneo and landed on Panay Island. The book then goes on to detail their subsequent purchase of the coastal lands in which they settled from the native Ati people.

An old manuscript Margitas of uncertain date (discovered by the anthropologist H. Otley Beyer) [9] give interesting details about the laws, government, social customs, and religious beliefs of the early Visayans, who settled Panay within the first half of the thirteenth century. [10] The term Visayan was first applied only to them and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, even at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol, and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to them because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay. [11]

Grabiel Ribera, captain of the Spanish royal infantry in the Philippine Islands, also distinguished Panay from the rest of the Pintados Islands. In his report (dated 20 March 1579) regarding a campaign to pacify the natives living along the rivers of Mindanao (a mission he received from Dr. Francisco de Sande, Governor and Captain-General of the Archipelago), Ribera mentioned that his aim was to make the inhabitants of that island "vassals of King Don Felipe… as are all the natives of the island of Panay, the Pintados Islands, and those of the island of Luzon…" [12]

During the early part of the colonial period in the Archipelago, the Spaniards led by Miguel López de Legazpi transferred their camp from Cebu to Panay in 1569. On 5 June 1569, Guido de Lavezaris, the royal treasurer in the Archipelago, wrote to Philip II reporting about the Portuguese attack to Cebu in the preceding autumn. A letter from another official, Andres de Mirandaola (dated three days later, 8 June), also described briefly this encounter with the Portuguese. The danger of another attack led the Spaniards to remove their camp from Cebu to Panay, which they considered a safer place. Legazpi himself, in his report to the Viceroy in New Spain (dated 1 July 1569), mentioned the same reason for the relocation of Spaniards to Panay. [13] It was in Panay that the conquest of Luzon was planned, and later launched on 8 May 1570. [14]

The account of early Spanish explorers

During the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, the Spanish Augustinian Friar Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A. described Panay as: "…very similar to that of Sicily in its triangular form, as well as in it fertility and abundance of provision. It is the most populated island after Manila and Mindanao, and one of the largest (with over a hundred leagues of coastline). In terms of fertility and abundance, it is the first. […] It is very beautiful, very pleasant, and full of coconut palms… Near the river Alaguer (Halaur), which empties into the sea two leagues from the town of Dumangas…, in the ancient times, there was a trading center and a court of the most illustrious nobility in the whole island." [15] Padre Francisco Colin (1592–1660), an early Jesuit missionary and Provincial of his Order in the Philippines also records in the chronicles of the Society of Jesus (published later in 1663 as Labor euangelica) that Panay is the island which is most abundant and fertile. [16]

The first Spanish settlement in Panay island and the second oldest Spanish settlement in the Philippines was established by the Miguel Lopez de Legazpi expedition in Panay, Capiz at the banks of the Panay River [17] in northern Panay, the name of which was extended to the whole Panay island. Legazpi transferred the capital there from Cebu since it had abundant provisions and was better protected from Portuguese attacks before the capital was once again transferred to Manila. [18]

Miguel de Luarca, who was among the first Spanish settlers in the Island, made one of the earliest account about Panay and its people according to a Westerner's point of view. In June 1582, while he was in Arevalo (Iloilo), he wrote in his Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas the following observations:

The island is the most fertile and well-provisioned of all the islands discovered, except the island of Luzon: for it is exceedingly fertile, and abounds in rice, swine, fowls, wax, and honey it produces also a great quantity of cotton and abacá fiber. [19]

"The villages are very close together, and the people are peaceful and open to conversion. The land is healthful and well-provisioned, so that the Spaniards who are stricken in other islands go thither to recover their health." [19]

"The natives are healthy and clean, and although the island of Cebu is also healthful and had a good climate, most of its inhabitants are always afflicted with the itch and buboes. In the island of Panay, the natives declare that no one of them had ever been afflicted with buboes until the people from Bohol – who, as we said above, abandoned Bohol on account of the people of Maluco – came to settle in Panay, and gave the disease to some of the natives. For these reasons the governor, Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, founded the town of Arevalo, on the south side of this island for the island runs north and south, and on that side live the majority of the people, and the villages are near this town, and the land here is more fertile." [19] This probably explains why there are reference of presence of Pintados in the Island.

"The island of Panay provides the city of Manila and other places with a large quantity of rice and meat…". [20] .. "As the island contains great abundance of timber and provisions, it has almost continuously had a shipyard on it, as is the case of the town of Arevalo, for galleys and fragatas. Here the ship 'Visaya' was launched." [21]

Another Spanish chronicler in the early Spanish period, Dr. Antonio de Morga (Year 1609) is also responsible for recording other Visayan customs. Customs such as Visayans' affinity for singing among their warrior-castes as well as the playing of gongs and bells in naval battles.

Their customary method of trading was by bartering one thing for another, such as food, cloth, cattle, fowls, lands, houses, fields, slaves, fishing-grounds, and palm-trees (both nipa and wild). Sometimes a price intervened, which was paid in gold, as agreed upon, or in metal bells brought from China. These bells they regard as precious jewels they resemble large pans and are very sonorous. They play upon these at their feasts, and carry them to the war in their boats instead of drums and other instruments. [22]

The early Dutch fleet commander Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge called at Panay in 1607. He mentions a town named "Oton" on the island where there were "18 Spanish soldiers with a number of other Spanish inhabitants so that there may be 40 whites in all". He explained that "a lot of rice and meat is produced there, with which they [i.e. the Spanish] supply Manila." [23]

According to Stephanie J. Mawson, using recruitment records found in Mexico, in addition to the 40 Caucasian Spaniards who then lived in Oton, there were an additional set of 66 Mexican soldiers of Mulatto, Mestizo or Native American descent sentried there during the year 1603. [24] However, the Dutch visitor, Cornelis Matelieff de Jongedid, did not count them in since they were not pure whites like him.

Iloilo City in Panay was awarded by the Queen of Spain the title: "La Muy Leal y Noble Ciudad de Iloilo" (The Most Loyal and Noble City) for being the most loyal and noble city in the Spanish Empire since it clung on to Spain amidst the Philippine revolution the last nation to revolt against Spain in the Spanish Empire.

World War II

Panay was a target by the Japanese in order to secure the rest of Visayas and so on April 16, 1942, Imperial Japanese Army forces landed on San Jose de Buenavista, Capiz City and Iloilo City.

However, guerrilla forces under Col. Macario Peralta Jr. would later on liberate most of the island and eventually capturing the city of Capiz on December 20, 1944 and therefore the liberation of the entire Capiz Province before the Allied forces land on Iloilo City on March 18, 1945 where they mopped up the remaining Japanese forces in the island. [25]

Geography

Panay island is the sixth largest island in the Philippines by area, with a total land area of 12,011 km 2 (4,637 sq mi). [1] Mount Madja-as is the highest point in Panay with an elevation of 2,117 metres (6,946 ft) above sea level, [2] located in town of Culasi in the northern province of Antique. Central Panay Mountain Range is the longest and largest mountain range in the island with a total length of 170 km (110 mi) north-south. Panay River is the longest river in the island with a total length of 168 km (104 mi) located in the province of Capiz.

Boracay island, with a white sand beach is located 0.86 kilometres (0.53 miles) off the coast of northwest tip of Panay Island, it is part of Aklan province, is a popular tourist destination.

Lakes

List of lakes on Panay Island

  • Lake Alapasco , Batad
  • Lake Danao , San Remigio
  • Marugo Lake , Tapaz, Capiz
  • Tinagong Dagat , Lambunao
  • Tinagong Dagat , Miag-ao

Administrative divisions

The island is covered by 4 provinces, 92 municipalities, and, as of 2014 [update] , 3 cities (93 municipalities if the associated islands of Caluya are included), all under the jurisdiction of the Western Visayas region.


The Forgotten Story of How America and Japan Almost Went to War (before Pearl Harbor)

When U.S. Navy gunboat Panay was sunk by Japanese aircraft on a Chinese river, the two countries were pushed to the brink of war.

While America and Europe struggled through economic depression and nervously watched the spread of fascism in the second half of the 1930s, the situation was far more ominous in the Far East.

Expansionist Japan had sown the seeds of war in China early in the decade, and hostilities broke out in July 1937. By that autumn, Japanese troops were advancing. Drunken and undisciplined soldiers pillaged and burned towns and villages civilians were captured and shot, and females of all ages were raped, murdered, and mutilated.

There were no limits to Japanese brutality piles of Chinese bodies were even used for grenade-throwing practice. A Japanese general apologized to a Westerner by saying, “You must realize that most of these young soldiers are just wild beasts from the mountains.”

Japanese troops marched into the city of Soochow in eastern China on November 19, and the roads to the great cities of Nanking and Shanghai were open to them. When Japanese units approached Nanking on November 21, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek’s office notified the American Embassy that it should prepare to evacuate. Ambassador Nelson T. Johnson and most of his personnel left the next day aboard the gunboat USS Luzon. Chiang, his wife, and remaining members of the Chinese government fled from the threatened city on December 8.

Japanese diplomat Yosuke Matsuoka explained that his country was fighting to achieve two goals in China: to prevent Asia from falling completely under white domination and to stem the spread of communism.

Japanese troops soon triumphantly entered Nanking and began a month of unprecedented atrocities. They roamed the city looting, burning, raping, and murdering. Men, women, and children were “hunted like rabbits.” Wounded and bound prisoners were beheaded, and an estimated 20,000 men and boys were used for live bayonet practice. Even the friendly Germans in the city issued an official report branding the Japanese Army as “bestial machinery.”

The invaders were supported by a new policy ordering the sinking of “all craft on the Yangzi River,” regardless of nationality. The aim was to leave China’s principal waterway clear for Japanese operations. The order came from Colonel Kingoro Hashimoto, founder of the Cherry Society, the Army’s “Bad Boy,” and commander of artillery batteries along the Yangtze River. He told his men to “fire on anything that moves on the river.”

To protect Western citizens, legations, and business interests, the waterway and its tributaries had been continually patrolled since the 19th century by British and American gunboats. The U.S. Asiatic Fleet established supply depots in Tsingtao, Hankow, and Canton and organized gunboats, which had been operating on the river since 1903, into the famed Yangtze River Patrol (Yangpat) in December 1919. Its first commander was Captain T.A. Kearney.

The U.S. Navy’s presence in China was lengthy. In 1832, President Andrew Jackson sent the 44-gun frigate USS Potomac to defend merchant ships against piracy in East Asia. She was commanded by Captain Lawrence Kearny, a veteran of piracy patrols in the Caribbean and Mediterranean. Named commander of the Navy’s East India Squadron, Kearny sailed from Boston to Macao and Canton aboard the 36-gun frigate USS Constellation in March 1842, just as the British-Chinese Opium War was ending. A skilled diplomat as well as a gallant sailor, Kearny formed good relations with Chinese officials.

U.S. Navy vessels were thereafter regularly assigned to East Asia, and in 1854 the side-wheel gunboat USS Ashuelot became the first American ship to patrol the Yangtze River. The Sino-American Treaty of 1858 granted U.S. warships the right to navigate all Chinese rivers and visit all ports. U.S. naval activity increased significantly after victory in the Spanish-American War in 1898, which led to the annexation of the Philippine Islands, and American naval units served in the Boxer Rebellion of 1899 when Chinese insurgents besieged the foreign legations in Peiping.

The Yangtze Patrol comprised 13 vessels, including nine gunboats, and 129 officers and 1,671 enlisted men. In addition, 814 men of the 15th Infantry Regiment were stationed in Tientsin, 528 U.S. Marines in Peking, and another 2,555 Leathernecks in Shanghai.

As revolutionary upheavals swept the country after World War I, the U.S. Navy beefed up its presence on the Yangtze in 1927-1928 by deploying six gunboats built in China and designed especially for river duty. They were the Guam, Luzon, Mindanao, Oahu, Tutuila, and the aging Panay.

The British and American sailors tensely plying the great waterway faced heightened danger as Japanese aggression mounted through the 1930s. The perceptive U.S. ambassador to Tokyo, Joseph C. Grew, reported that American-run churches, hospitals, universities, and schools across China had been bombed despite flag markings on their roofs, and missionaries and their families killed. Stressing that the attacks were planned, he loudly protested the pillaging of American property.

As Japan’s undeclared war intensified, focusing especially on Shanghai with its international business settlement, President Franklin D. Roosevelt warned Americans in China that they should leave for their own safety. If anything happened to them or their property, he said, “The United States has no intention of going to war either with China or Japan, but instead would demand redress or indemnities through orthodox, friendly, diplomatic channels.”

The man on the spot was Iowa-born, 61-year-old Admiral Harry E. Yarnell, new commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy’s Asiatic Fleet. An Annapolis graduate and veteran of the Spanish-American War and the Boxer Rebellion who had successfully “attacked” Pearl Harbor during war games in 1932, Yarnell commanded only two cruisers, 13 destroyers, six submarines, and 10 gunboats. Yet, on September 27, 1937, he sent an order to his fleet contradicting FDR’s policy.

“Most American citizens now in China are engaged in businesses or professions which are their only means of livelihood,” said the admiral. “These persons are unwilling to leave until their businesses have been destroyed or they are forced to leave due to actual physical danger. Until such time comes, our naval forces cannot be withdrawn without failure in our duty and without bringing great discredit on the United States Navy.” Yarnell reported his fleet order to Washington and, surprisingly, it was not countermanded by Roosevelt.

Public opinion supported the admiral’s initiative, and FDR fell in line. In an October 5 speech, the president declared, “When an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community approves and joins in a quarantine of the patients in order to protect the health of the community.” His listeners understood what he meant.

The uneasy quiet along the River Yangtze was shattered at 9 am on Sunday, December 12, 1937, when Colonel Hashimoto’s gun crews opened fire on the Royal Navy gunboat HMS Ladybird. Four shells struck the vessel, killing a sailor and wounding several others. A British merchant ship and four other gunboats were also fired on. Twelve miles above Nanking, a Japanese air attack missed the gunboats HMS Cricket and HMS Scarab, which were escorting a convoy of merchant ships carrying civilian refugees, including some Americans.

Alarmed by the attacks, Ambassador Johnson hastily composed a telegram that morning to the secretary of state in Washington, the embassy office in Peiping, and the American consul in Shanghai. Dispatched by the gunboat Luzon at 10:15 am, the telegram urged the State Department to press Tokyo to call a halt to attacks on foreigners in China. Prophetically, Johnson messaged, “Unless Japanese can be made to realize that these ships are friendly and are only refuge available to Americans and other foreigners, a terrible disaster is likely to happen.”

That same morning Admiral Yarnell sent a message to the USS Panay ordering her to get underway at the discretion of her skipper, Lt. Cmdr. James J. Hughes. Japanese shells had been landing regularly and close to the gunboat.

At 8 am the previous day, the Panay had embarked Ambassador Johnson, American officials, and some civilians and started upriver on a five-mile journey. The gunboat escorted three Standard Oil Co. barges, the Mei Ping, Mei Hsia, and Mei An and was followed by a few British craft. American flags were hoisted on the barges’ masts and painted on their awnings and topsides. For two miles, moving slowly against the current, the vessels were fired on by Japanese shore batteries. But the shooting was wild, and the little flotilla was able to pull out of range without suffering hits.

The Panay and the barges anchored near Hoshien, about 15 miles above Nanking, at 11 am on December 12. The berth was in a wide space that seemed secure, 27 miles away from the fighting around Nanking.


Panay II PR-5 - History

USS Panay from the Asiatic Fleet
Same ship as in the movie "Sand Pebbles"
(look below for a detailed message from Art)

USS Panay in 1/192 scale this is the American Gunboat
attacked by the Japanese in their war on China 1938.
Resin kit #AS17 $175.00 in stock

Diorama built by master builders Bob Santos & Art Herrick.

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PR -- River Gunboats

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
PR-7 Luzon 1928 5 May 42 at Corregidor
PR-8 Mindanao 1928 2 May 42 bombed off Corregidor
PR-6 Oaho 1928 4 May 42 artillery fire at Corregidor
PR-5 Panay 1928 12 Dec 37 air attack on Yangtze River, above Nanking
PR-4 Tutuila 1928
19Mar42

Lend-Lease to China
PR-3 Wake 1927 8 Dec 41 captured at Shanghai

As Paul Harvey would say "Here's the rest of the Story"


Watch the video: Πως Λειτουργεί ο Μύλος. Μουσείο Λούλη (December 2021).