World War Two witnessed a number of major medical achievements; it was as if the war itself gave medical research a huge push which it failed to get during times of peace. For link to Archibald McIndoe - click here For link to Guinea Pig Club - click here For Medical advances in World War Two - click here
The Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks were born out of Russia's Social Democrat Party. When the party split in 1903, the Bolsheviks only had one obvious leader - Lenin. In the last years of the C19th, the Social Democrats had competed with numerous other ideologies in Russia. Included in these ideologies were the Socialist Revolutionaries and Populists.
The Medieval Church played a far greater role in Medieval England than the Church does today. In Medieval England, the Church dominated everybody's life. All Medieval people - be they village peasants or towns people - believed that God, Heaven and Hell all existed. From the very earliest of ages, the people were taught that the only way they could get to Heaven was if the Roman Catholic Church let them.
The Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis of 1938 showed just how ruthless Hitler could be when it came to his expectation that everyone working for him should be totally obedient. Werner von Blomberg and Werner von Fritsch were two very senior officers in the army - and both were compelled into resigning from their posts by Hitler for failing to accept his full authority over the military.
On May 29th 2005, the French had a referendum on the European Constitution. For the constitution to come into force, all member states in the EU have to ratify it. In theory, the constitution in its current form will never come into force if just one member state rejects it. The first country to 'ask' its people was Spain and they voted in favour of the constitution.
The Holy Roman Empire was potentially Europe's greatest state. However, by 1600 the Holy Roman Empire was a mere shadow of its former glory. The heart of the Holy Roman Empire had been Germany. But by 1600, a better term for the area would have been “Germanies” as the heart of the Holy Roman Empire had become split into a mass of princes and states who since the time of Luther had done what they could to extend their independence and power at the expense of the emperor.